Sohjoa Last Mile


With the project period from October 2020 to March 2022, the consortium will implement three automated, electric shuttle remote operating pilots in Kongsberg, Tallinn, and Gdansk. The aim is to study true driverless driving. The pilots take place both in closed and open areas and they provide information for the future remote fleet operating.

TalTech role in the project is to implement the Tallinn pilot and investigate the following challenges:

  • The technical capabilities and potential risk when driving without a safety driver
  • The human perception towards the driverless bus together with recommendations on the future LoD (the language of driving)
  • The communications network requirements for remote-control driving
  • An evaluation of 5G network advantages based on remote control pilots over TalTech 5G

The Tallinn pilot route is defined in the university campus and iseAuto is used as an autonomous minibus.

See more on TalTech iseAuto page

The Sohjoa Last Mile is the follow-up project to Sohjoa Baltic

Sohjoa Baltic

Eco-friendly public transport in Baltic Sea Region

Sohjoa Baltic researches, promotes and pilots automated driverless electric minibusses as part of the public transport chain, especially for the first/last-mile connectivity.

The project brings knowledge and competence to organizing environmentally friendly and smart automated public transport. It also provides guidelines on the legal and organizational setup needed for running such a service in an efficient way. Sohjoa Baltic consortium has partners from Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Latvia, Germany, Poland, Norway and Denmark with the area and public transportation planning expertise as well as legal expertise combined with strong technical understanding which are the requirements for enabling autonomous traffic. Sohjoa Baltic had autonomous small buses to drive demo routes in six Baltic Sea Region cities.

The Sohjoa Baltic project is funded by Interreg – Baltic Sea Region program. See project website

Key findings and publications of Sohjoa Baltic:

The Roadmap to Automated Electric Shuttles in Public Transport publication series provides collectively written key lessons learned during the project Sohjoa Baltic (2017-2020).

Each of five-volume in this series has its own focal point:

    1. The Legal Framework (PDF), publisher: What is the current legal status of automated driving in different European countries of the Baltic Sea Region? Sohjoa Baltic presents the relevant legal information for implementation and provides policy recommendations for the future.
    2. Technology and safety requirements, publisher: Metropolia UAS What are the current relevant technological and safety challenges to be taken into consideration in the implementation of automated shuttle buses? Sohjoa Baltic provides information from Germany, Denmark, Poland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Estonia, and Latvia.
    3. Starting Your Own Pilot (PDF) , publisher: Metropolia UAS How to deploy an automated vehicle pilot in a city? Sohjoa Baltic provides a practical toolkit with recommendations based on the practical experiences from automated shuttle bus pilots in Norway, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Denmark.
    4. Procurement Challenges, publisher: Metropolia UAS What are the barriers and enablers of autonomous vehicle procurement in public transportation? The experiences of Sohjoa Baltic’s automated shuttle bus pilots in Estonia, Denmark, Finland, Latvia, Norway and Poland describe the complexity.
    5. Sohjoa Baltic User experience and impact on public transport, publisher: Metropolia UASHow and why should cities prepare to implement automated public transport? What is the role of automated shuttle buses? Sohjoa Baltic provides views based on experiences from pilots in Norway, Poland, Finland and Estonia.